ODIN Public Alpha 5 - 1999/11/16

마루 0 3,302 2023.10.04 21:52


                O D I N  Public Alpha 5 - 1999/11/16

                ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~


WANTED: We are still looking for talented developers that want to

        contribute! Please take a look at the last section!


NOTE:   LICENSE.TXT describes the Project Odin Software License.



Project Odin Information

========================


1.0 Introduction

----------------


This readme is intended for end users that have downloaded the

latest public alpha release and want to give it a try. For more

information, be sure to regularly check http://www.netlabs.org/odin.


1.1 Purpose

-----------


Odin is a free Open Source project with the goal to eventually

provide a fully working Win32 (Win 95/98/NT/2000) runtime environment,

making it possible to run your favorite Windows programs under OS/2,

as if they were native OS/2 programs. The second goal of Odin is to

provide the full Win32 application programming interface (API) so

that it is possible to build OS/2 programs using Windows source

code. This is also refered to as Odin32 whereas Odin is the name

of the Win32 binary emulator.


1.2 Current Status

------------------


Odin is still in the early alpha state so that it is very far from

being widely usable. Most programs will not work or show many

problems. Even though it is not usable for most programs, we have

decided to do a public release in order to show how much progress

the project has been made. A second goal is to attract more developers

in order to speedup development. Our job includes rewriting most

parts of Windows 95/NT without having the original source code so

the more developers we have the more progess will be seen. The

last public release (Alpha 0.004) has been in 1997 and the project

has changed much since then. Everything is free and Open Source now

and the base architecture has been improved quite a lot. We are now

in a position where we can expect the first bigger applications to

run well and to make much more visible progress.


1.3 Changes and additions in alpha 5

------------------------------------

- Removed Open32 dependacy in User32 code: windows, dialogs, buttons and

  other controls creation and manipulation is now implemented fully in Odin32.

  Applications have Win32 look: Win32 specific controls are also supported

  (Open32 is still a requirement as other Odin32 functions use it!)

- New and improved PE2LX converter

- New Portable Executable Loader (PE) that overcomes some differences

  between OS/2 and Win32 memory models (this does not include 512MB

  per-process memory limitation in OS/2, you still need the Aurora-level

  kernel for that)

- New WIN32K32k.SYS driver that automates loading of Win32 binaries (no

  conversion or invocation through PE.EXE loader is needed), now

  compatible with WSeB (Aurora) and no longer dependant of code under

  GNU license

- Wine ports of common controls (comctl32), shell extensions (shell32) and

  OLE

- Full implementation of memory mapped files

- Joystick support (winmm)

- Direct Input (DirectX keyboard & mouse) added (Wine Port)

- Rewrite of DirectDraw. More complete implementation.

- Couple of (not core Win32 API, but often used) new DLLs (winasp32, lz32,

  avifil32...), so users don't have to have Windows license at all to run

  Windows programs

- Many new API functions implemented or ported from Wine, allows

  developers to port Win32 apps directly to OS/2 with little to no rewriting

- Many bugfixes and enhancements

- Many new programs that load and/or work with Odin

- Full source code available



2.0 Installing Odin (UPDATED)

-----------------------------


Daily builds of Odin are available at ftp://ftp.os2.org/odin/daily.

For people that do not have a suitable development setup for ODIN,

we provide the latest binary code that way.


Odin daily builds are now also distributed as WarpIn archives.

WarpIn is a generic OS/2 installation application that can be

downloaded from warpin.netlabs.org.


Requirements for installing Odin:

- You must install Odin on a partition that supports long filenames (e.g.

  HPFS/JFS). Odin will not work on FAT!

- OS/2 Warp 4, eComStation or Warp Server for e-Business (WSeB)

  When using Warp 4, we recommend you apply fixpack 13 or higher.

  * Warp 3 is not officially supported, but is reported to work by using

    Warp 4 open32 dlls and patching them.


Manual installation without WarpIn is not recommended. If you don't use WarpIn,

then you *must* execute odininst.exe in the Odin system32 directory. (the first

time Odin is installed or when the ChangeLog mentions fixes/changes in the

installer)


NOTE: You must install Odin on a partition that supports long filenames (e.g.

      HPFS/JFS). Odin will not work on FAT!


To install Odin, run warpin.exe with the name of the daily build archive

as parameter.

Follow the instructions to complete the installation.

The Odin installation consists of:

  - creating an Odin directory and copying the included files to

    x:\odin and x:\odin\system32

  - creating empty directories in x:\odin (to create a similar directory

    structure as found in Windows)

  - creating a basic registry for executing win32 applications in OS/2

  - adds x:\odin\system32 to the path and libpath settings in your config.sys


NOTE: You MUST install Odin at least once using WarpIn (unless you know

      what you're doing). Afterwards you can use the daily build zipfiles

      to upgrade to a newer version.


To run DirectDraw games or Quake 2 in Voodoo mode, you must install Holger

Veit's XFree86/2 support driver (XF86SUP.SYS).

Visit http://ais.gmd.de/~veit/os2/xf86sup.html to download it.


NOTE: The Glide and 3Dfx Opengl dll are no longer part of the basic Odin

      installation package. It's available as opengl3dfx.zip on ftp.os2.org.



2.0.1 Log files

---------------

The alpha 5 binaries and daily build zipfiles can generate logfiles to show

what a win32 application is doing. This can be very useful to determine

why certain applications don't run correctly.


The major disadvantage of loggging is the overhead. Therefor it has been

disabled by default in the alpha 5 release and daily builds.

To enable logging set the environment variable WIN32LOG_ENABLED:

   SET WIN32LOG_ENABLED=1


To disable logging again, you must clear this variable:

   SET WIN32LOG_ENABLED=



2.1 Using Odin to run your Windows applications

-----------------------------------------------


Odin still has several ways to execute Win32 programs.



2.2 The Ring3 Win32 Loader (PE.EXE)

----------------------------------


This is the new and also recommended method for loading programs.

Unlike with the previous alphas, it is not required to convert or

anyhow change the original files. Installing a device driver is

also not necessary. Be sure to put the Odin binary directory into

both the PATH and LIBPATH (alternatively you can use a batch file

with SET PATH=C:\Odin;%PATH% and SET BEGINLIBPATH=C:\Odin;)

and then call pe.exe winprog.exe param1 param2 ... If you wanted

to start the Windows calculator, you would type


pe calc


The PE (Portable Executable, the Win32 executable format) loader

will now try to load the application into memory and execute it.

This will either work or fail with a loader message. If you get

such a loader message, it is very likely that a required DLL is

missing. To correct that problem, take a look at pe_0.log (or

pe_1.log for the second program running at this time and so on).

At the bottom of the file you will see the DLLs and the functions

that the loader imports. It will tell you if it couldn't find a

DLL and you can correct the problem and try it again.



2.2.1 PE loader issues

----------------------


As the PE loader will create the process and load the program,

a process utility such as pstat will always show PE.EXE as the

executable file.

It is also possible that a certain Win32 application becomes

a zombie (that is when it does certain things the OS/2 kernel

cannot recover such as die when waiting on a semaphore). Then

it will not be possible to kill the application - only a system

restart will help.

Certain programs do use fixed memory addresses where they need

to be loaded (i.e. they won't use fixups). You can notice this

at the top of the loader log file (pe_0.log). If the fixed address

is above the 512MB barrier present in Warp 4 and Warp 3, the

program can not be run under these system. On Aurora (Warp Server

for e-business) this limitation has been removed. Programs known

to fall under this category are Microsoft Office (also the

Office viewers) and other mainly Microsoft programs.



2.3 Win32k.sys - native OS/2 PE-loader

--------------------------------------


The win32k.sys driver makes PE (Win32) executables equal to native OS/2

executables by implementing a Ring 0 on-the-fly loader / converter.


You may wonder how you may run a Win32 program using a device driver. You

don't have to worry about that, simply treat the Win32 program just as an

another OS/2 program. OS/2 can't tell the difference!

No conversion of dlls or running programs thru Pe.EXE.


For example, if you fancy playing windows solitaire.

    1) Make sure the necessary DLLs (MSVCRT.DLL and CARDS.DLL) are in you

       PATH, current dir, SOL.EXE dir, Odin32 System32 dir, Odin32 System dir,

       Odin32 dir, or LIBPATHs; and that you have SOL.EXE somewhere.


    2) Then start SOL.EXE by simply typing SOL.EXE (with path if necessary).

       It's also possible to start SOL.EXE from the desktop if you like.

       Simply find the SOL.EXE icon (or create it) and double click on it!



2.3.1 WARNING

-------------


The Win32k.sys is quite alpha software and any bugs which haven't been found

yet may crash and/or corrupt you entire system! Make sure you have backed up

important stuff first!


We are not responsible for ANYTHING AT ALL! See Odin32 disclaimer...


Before you install Win32k.sys make sure that you have a backdoor to your system

which works. For example try to boot your system using the Alt+F1 during bootup

and choose Commandline boot (F2). Make sure you have an textmode editor which

works; for example TEDIT.EXE.



2.3.2 Requirements

------------------


Win32k should at least work on OS/2 Warp 3 and above, but I don't get too

surprised if it worked on 2.11 too. DBCS are not supported yet AFAIK.


It no longer requires a kernel file for retail kernels (if you don't know what

kernel you have, you have a retail kernel). Win32k does now contain a

"database" for the most recent retail kernels. Currently this is:

    Warp 4 fp#1 -> fp#14

    Aurora GA, FP1, preFP2

    Warp 3 fp#32-> fp#42


If the running kernel is not found in the "database" or is a debug kernel

wink32.sys will look for symbolfiles as it allways did.

If you use the -s:<symfile> argument the given symbol file will be

investigated before the database is searched.


NOTE! It hasn't been fully verified that all the different national fixpaks

have the same symbols as the us-english ones. Feedback on this issue is

appreciated.


NOTE! A piece of advice for those playing with debug-kernels: Make sure that

c:\OS2KRNL.SYM is matching the running kernel.


2.3.2.1 Warp 3

--------------


Win32k is not tested with Warp 3. It is _supposed_ to work with Warp 3

provided you are running fixpack 32 or later.

(Fixpack 32 + y2kclock.exe is required for Y2K readyness anyway so...)



2.3.3 Installation

------------------


To use Win32k.sys you have to add the following line into your config.sys:

    device=<d:\path\system32>win32k.sys


Where <d:\path\system32> is the path to the win32k.sys, i.e. usually the odin32

system32 directory.


After doing this, you'll have to reboot your machine to load the driver. During

the boot process you will on a successful installation see some lines of

technical info and finally a line saying:

Win32k - Odin32 support driver.

    Build:            14046 - v20.45

    Found symbolfile: Win32k Symbol Database

Win32k.sys succesfully initiated!


If you don't see the last line something is wrong, and some error info will be

shown. In the case of error the 'rc=<value>' is important to remember.



2.3.4 Win32k parameters

-----------------------


The Capitalized letters are the one which is tested for when identifying the

argument.


There are some useful parameters for Win32k:

-Quited         Quiet driver initiation.

                Default: disabled (ie. -V)


-Verbose        Verbose driver initiation.

                Default: enabled


-S:<filename>   Full path to the current OS/2 kernel symbol file.

                When this is specified the given

                Default: symbol "database" and default locations are searched.



Loader parameters:

-SCript:<Y|N>   Enable / disable UNIX script support.

                Default: Enabled.


-REXX:<Y|N>     Enable / disable pure REXX script support.

                Default: Enabled.


-Java:<Y|N>     Enable / disable JAVA loading.


-Pe:<MIXED|PE2LX|PE|NOT>

                Enabled / disable and set mode of the PE loading.

                    MIXED:  Mix of Pe2Lx and Pe.exe. It uses Pe2Lx when

                            possible and backs out to pe.exe if the executables

                            aren't supported by the converter.

                    PE2LX:  Pe2Lx loader only.

                    PE:     Pe.exe only. The program is started using Pe.exe,

                            and the process name will be pe.exe.

                    NOT:    Disable PE loading.



Logging parameters:

-L<:E|:D>       Enables/Disables logging.

                Default: disabled.


-Com:<1|2|3|4>

or

-C<1|2|3|4>     Which com-port to log to.

                Default: -C2


-Warning:<1|2|3|4>

or

-W<1|2|3|4>     Warning/info level for PE loader. (This is warnings and info

                which is published thru the com-port as logging information.)

                Default: -W0



Heap parameters:

-HEAPMax:       Maximum swappable heap size in bytes.

                Default: 512KB


-Heapinit:      Initial heapsize in bytes.

                Default: 16MB


-RESHEAPMax:    Maximum resident heap size in bytes.

                Default: 256KB


-Resheapinit:   Initial resident in bytes.

                Default: 16MB



OS/2 Loader parameter:

-Dllfixes<:E|:D>

                Enables or Disables the long DLL name and non .DLL

                extention fixes. OS/2 DLLs have been limited to 8 chars

                names since version 2.<something>. This is a very bad

                limitation. Also OS/2 forces all DLL loaded to loadtime

                to have the extention '.DLL'.

                Both these retritions are removed if this option is

                enabled.

                For DLL with non .DLL extention the internal name must

                have to the extention included. (If you the experiences

                problems with IMPLIB.EXE, enclose the internal name

                in double-quotes.)

                You should not make a DLL with a name starting with

                DOSCALLS, DOSCALLS1, IBMVGA32, IBMDEV32 or IBMXGA32.

                Current state for this feature is EXPERIMENTAL.

                Default: Enabled



Obsolete:

-K:<filename> Ignored. Win32k scans the kernel image in memory!



2.3.5 PE Loading

----------------


Win32k.sys are able to do PE loading in two different ways.


2.3.5.1 PE2LX

-------------

The first one is called PE2LX and hence uses the original Win32k.sys method

which is similar to Pe2Lx. This only requires that KERNEL32.DLL (ie. Odin32

System32 directory) is present somewhere in the PATH or LIBPATHs. The DLL

search order of PE2LX is now conforming with the Win32 order:

    1. The directory of the executable (.EXE).

    2. The current directory.

    3. The Odin32 System32 directory. (Kernel32.dll directory)

    4. The Odin32 System directory. (sibling of system32)

    5. The Odin32 directory. (parent of system32)

    6. The PATH environment variable. (TODO: quotes are not currently supported)

    7. The BEGINLIBPATH.

    8. The LIBPATH.

    9. The ENDLIBPATH.

(Note that the OS/2 DLLs in the _Odin32_ process are also found using this

search order. This shouldn't matter much as nearly all of the OS/2 DLL are

allready loaded. But if this proves a problem it could be changed.)


2.3.5.2 PE

----------

The second one is called PE and invokes the Pe.EXE to execute the PE (Win32)

programs. This of course requies that PE.EXE is found in the PATH.


2.3.5.3 Modes

--------------

Win32k.sys have three (or four) different ways of combining these two methods,

called modes:

    PE2LX only

    PE only

    PE2LX with fallback on PE.

    (fourth: NOT load any PE executables at all)


The last one is the default one and is probably the best one currently.



2.3.6 UNIX Shell Script Loader

------------------------------


The UNIX Shell Script Loader makes OS/2 able to run UNIX shell scripts as

native executables, just as UNIX does. A unix shell script is a text file

which has a starting line which specifies the interpreter for the script.


For example a perl script:

#!/bin/perl5 -Sx


Or the most common one:

#! /bin/sh


Since Most OS/2 systems don't have a /bin directory or a /usr/bin directory

the executable specified are looked for in these ways:

    1. The exact filename specified.

    2. The filename specified with .EXE extention.

    3. Search the PATH for the filename (with out path of course).

    4. Search the PATH for the filename with .EXE extention (and with out path of course).


So, you could now execute UNIX shell script in OS/2 without even modify the

path of the interpreter!


The UNIX Shell Script Loader is enabled by default.



2.3.6 Pure REXX Loader

----------------------


The Pure REXX Loader is a win32k.sys feature which enables REXX script with

the extentions .RX and .REX to run as native OS/2 executables. These REXX

scripts are executed using kRX.EXE which is found in the Odin32 System32

directory.


When we say "Pure REXX" scripts, that means no use of command line should

occure in the script.


The Pure REXX Loader is enabled by default.



2.3.7 Java Loader/Invoker

-------------------------


Just for fun, I've added some code which detects JAVA class binaries and

executes the class using JAVA.EXE. I first thougth this should be easy, but

it turned out to have several problems.

So please note the following:

    - The classname is case sensitive, you have to write the exact class

      name (with .class extention or what ever extention the file have)

      when trying to execute a class. This could cause some throuble making

      WPS program objects for the classes....

    - To support executing of .class-files which are not in the current

      directory win32k.sys send the directory of the .class-file in to

      java.exe as a '-classpath' option. This option I soon found out had the

      sideeffect of making JAVA.exe ignore the other CLASSPATH and not use

      it's default class path. So now the contents of the CLASSPATH env. var.

      or a generated default classpath is also sent in with the '-classpath'

      option.

    - The CLASSPATH environment variable should not be longer than 639 chars.


When you have successfully installed Win32k.sys try type this at the

commandline:

c:\java11\demo\hello\hello.class


This is then printed at my screen:

Hello, Warped world!


The JAVA Loader/Invoker is enabled by default.



2.3.8 Rings - Ring 0 / Ring 3

-----------------------------


FYI. Ring 0 is the most priveleged level of execution in OS/2. The OS/2 kernel

and device drivers execute at this level, while user applications execute in

Ring 3, the least priveleged executing level.



2.3.9 Win32k Control Center

---------------------------


In your Odin32 System32 directory there is a program called Win32kCC.exe,

this is the Win32k Control Center (Win32kCC). Win32kCC is as the name says

a program controlling Win32k.sys.


Win32kCC allows you to enable, disable and change behaviour of different

parts in Win32k.sys.


For example: You could disable PE loading, or change it from MIXED mode (see

2.3.4, -PE) to PE2LX mode. Or change it from PE2LX mode to PE mode to see

if PE.EXE does a better job loading an executable.


Note that the changes would not effect allready loaded executables.



Win32kCC also displays status info on the running Win32k.sys and OS/2 kernel:

    -Win32k.sys version number

    -Win32k build time/date

    -Path of the symbol file which was used (or Win32k Symbol Database).

    -OS/2 kernel build number fixpack (guess)

    -OS/2 kernel type as win32k has detected it

    -Number of Pe2Lx currently loaded modules

    -Win32k resident and swappable heap stats.


PS. Beside the "PE Loader" area there is an "Elf Loader" area this is for a

future Elf2Lx loader.




2.4 The Ring3 conversion utility (Xx2Lx.exe)

--------------------------------------------


Xx2Lx.exe was the first method of running Win32 programs under

OS/2. It is still provided and also functional but it has been

deprecated. Using it is only sensible for debugging certain

problems as it requires all DLLs and EXEs to be converted into

another file format thus changing the original Win32 files.

(It's only future use will be to convert Win32 executable with

debuginfo to LX with HLL (IPMD/ICSDEBUG) debuginfo for

sourcelevel debugging of Win32 executables under Odin32. This

is not yet implemented but is being worked on.)


Note. The name changed from Pe2Lx to Xx2Lx. It is in prepare for Elf2Lx.



3.0 Applications known to be working

------------------------------------


- Windows 95/NT Help Viewer (winhlp32.exe)

- Windows 95/NT Registry Editor

- Windows NT Solitaire (not the one from Windows 95)

- Windows NT Freecell (not the one from Windows 95)

- Windows 95/NT Calculator

- Windows NT Pinball

- Windows NT Minesweeper

- Quake II

- Red Alert

- Professional Minesweeper

- Windiff (part of Win32 SDK)

- RealPlayer 7/8

- Lotus Notes 5.0 (partly anyway)

- Acrobat Distiller 3.0


Note that many other applications load and/or partly work.



4.0 Reporting Problems and Successes

------------------------------------


Bug reports can be sent to the Odin users mailinglist (odinusers@egroups.com;

visit www.egroups.com for information about joining).

The file ReportingBugs.txt explains how to send in a proper bug report.


An application compatibility database has been created at Netlabs

where you can share your experiences with Odin.

The application compatibility database can be found at


http://www.netlabs.org/odin/appdatabase


NOTE: The application database is not meant for bug reports.



5.0 Project Odin Source Code Notes

----------------------------------


5.1.0 Introduction

------------------


This chapter is intended for people more familiar with ODIN. It describes

the various aspects of the project such as accessing the latest sources via

cvs, building the binaries, running win32 applications, how to identify and

report problems and bugs, as well as how to participate in this very

promising project.



5.1.1 Prerequisites:

--------------------


Required compilers/tools:

        - IBM VisualAge 3.0 (CTx8 fixpack applied)

          (version 3.6 might also work; version 4 is not recommended)

        - OS/2 Warp 4 Toolkit (project apparently doesn't compile with

          VAC's OS/2 headers)

          Might also work with EMX headers. (haven't tried this!)

        - ALP 4.0 (IBM Assembly Language Processor)

          Download the tools zipfile from http://service.boulder.ibm.com/ddk/

          (you need to register, but it's free)

        - Unix-like rm.exe (nmake clean)


Changes from last source code release:

        - Uses Wine headers and a stripped down version of os2win.h (Open32

          header)

        - All Open32 apis have the 'O32_' prefix.

        - All Open32 declarations are appended with '_O32' (mostly due to

          calling convention differences)

        - nmake DEBUG=1 builds the debug version

          nmake         builds the release version

        - Several dlls (i.e. USER32, KERNEL32, ADVAPI32) contain extra .def

          files that are used to create libraries that contain the api names

          as required by the linker when you use them. (_apiname@nrparameterbytes)


Wine header notes:

        - Several header files have been changed to make them usable for VAC

        - Several header files contain bugfixes (mostly parameter type changes)

        - Several header files include additional declarations

        - At this time we don't intend to have our changes included in the

          Wine codebase as header files are not likely to change often.


Coding conventions:

        - Do NOT directly call the Open32 apis unless you're writing

          a wrapper for it.

        - Do NOT include os2.h directly. Use os2wrap.h instead.

          os2wrap.h contains all the OS/2 apis with a wrapper around it to save

          and restore the selector in FS. (some OS/2 apis set it back to the

          default value (150b))

        - Use the correct Win32 api when there are two version (ascii & unicode)

          Calling the standard one (SendMessage) causes a error during

          compilation.

          Use SendMessageA instead.

        - Source code style will be decided on in the near future.



5.2.0 Accessing ODIN source code via CVS

----------------------------------------


Please check out http://www.netlabs.org/ and http://www.netlabs.org/odin.



5.3.0 Building the binaries

---------------------------


The first time you want to build Odin, you must first run configure.cmd.

This REXX script creates the file makefile.inc, which contains the absolute

paths of important build directories.


If your system setup meets above stated requirements, everything you

need to do next for a binary build is:


  nmake DEBUG=1


or alternatively


  nmake release (not working right now!)


As the current state of the project is still known to be alpha level, one should

expect some functions not to work properly. Therefore, we recommend the use of

the debug-version which creates long logfiles for problem determination purpose

and to allow active debugging with debuggers such as IPMD, ICAT, KDB, etc.


Please note if you do not want to suffer from the performance loss of writing

logfiles, you can disable logging even with the debug binaries of ODIN by

setting:


  SET NOWIN32LOG=YES


To enable logging again, clear this environment variable by typing:


  SET NOWIN32LOG=


Logging is enabled by default in the debug build, but disabled by default

in the nodebuginfo build and not present in the release build.


5.3.1 Build problems

--------------------


ODIN is moving at a fast pace. Sometimes side effects of source dependencies may

require you to do a full rebuild of the binaries instead of an incremental build.


However, rarely it also happens the sources contained in the CVS repository do

not build completely due to erroneous source code. Usually, this is fixed within

two days at maximum.

In such event, one can normally stick with the previous version of the particular

module to further test win32 applications on ODIN.


Please report such build problems through the appropriate channel.



5.3.2 Downloading daily built binaries

--------------------------------------


http://www.os2.org/ has setup an ftp server that hosts the automatically

built binaries on daily basis. For people that do not have a suitable

development setup for ODIN, we provide the latest binary code that way.



5.4.0 Project participation

---------------------------


As ODIN became an open source project, everybody is kindly invited to

contribute his/her share to the progress of the project. May it be

active coding, fixing bugs or just providing detailed information about

examined problems.


We suggest you subscribe to win32os2-wai and the corresponding mailing lists

on http://www.egroups.com.

In case you are interested in participating, every member of the project will

be happy to give you direction to the right places and to give a personal

introduction to further development of the particular modules.



6.0 Warranty

------------


EXCEPT AS OTHERWISE RESTRICTED BY LAW, THIS WORK IS PROVIDED

WITHOUT ANY EXPRESSED OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, INCLUDING

BUT NOT LIMITED TO, ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF FITNESS FOR A

PARTICULAR PURPOSE, MERCHANTABILITY OR TITLE.  EXCEPT AS

OTHERWISE PROVIDED BY LAW, NO AUTHOR, COPYRIGHT HOLDER OR

LICENSOR SHALL BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES OF ANY KIND, EVEN IF

THEY HAVE BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.


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